Immediately Alexander led his armies southward, and Thessaly quickly recognized him as leader. Before the confrontation he harangued his troops, fearful of the bulky numerical superiority of the enemy. All the capitals opened before the Greeks. The empire collapsed at his death, and nations and generals vied for power.
In the spring of he had left Macedonia for three years, with Antipater as regent; But neither they nor after seems to have thought of returning. In the itinerary followed by Alexander, it emphasizes its fierce effort to cross the desert of Gedrosia Baluchistanemulating to the own Ciro, but with a high cost in lives between the ranks of its army.
Leaving Porus, he then proceeded down the river and into the Indus, with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks. Philip, the great Macedonian conqueror was dead, the man who liberated his own country and brought if from the edge of the abyss into a world power.
To commemorate the victory, Alexander sent sets of Persian armor to the Parthenon in Athens with the dedicatory inscription: The strange phenomenon of the non-corruption of the body of Alexander, more remarkable still with the heat prevailing in Babylon, would have given rise, in Christian times, to believe that it was a miracle, to sanctify it.
Alexander then systematically killed all possible royal claimants to the throne, and Olympias murdered the daughter of Philip and Cleopatra and forced Cleopatra to commit suicide.
Darius fled to Ecbatana in Media, and Alexander occupied Babylon, the imperial capital Susa, and the Persian capital Persepolis, and was henceforth proclaimed king of Asia.
Finally, Bessus was caught and executed for the murder of his king Darius III, and Spitamenes was killed by his own wife which was tired of running away. As the descendant of Achilles, Alexander would correct the ills Persia had created for Greece and remove Persian intervention in Greek affairs.
As the Illyrians and Thracians lived mainly from plunder, he told them to look at the enemy line glittering in gold Asia Minor and the Battle of Issus In winter — Alexander conquered western Asia Minor, subduing the hill tribes of Lycia and Pisidiaand in spring he advanced along the coastal road to Pergapassing the cliffs of Mount Climax, thanks to a fortunate change of wind.
They viewed them and their kings as barbarians non-Greeksa manner in which they treated all non-Greeks. There the Gordians posed an apparently irresolvable dilemma to the invader.
Greek inscriptions were also found in Thrace and Illyria, the Thracians even inscribed their coins and vessels in Greek, and we know that both the Illyrians and the Thracians were not Greeks who had distinct languages. Reluctantly, Alexander agreed to stop here.
After Philotas was executed according to the Macedonian custom, Alexander ordered next the execution of Philotas' father, general Parmenio.
In fact Philip II had often remarked how proud he was to have Parmenio as his general. Whether it was for the size of the company or its success, the old world was not the same again after ten years of uninterrupted campaigns by the Macedonians and their allies in the East.
A revolt that sprung up in this city, headed by Spitens, was choked promptly, with the consequent death of the insurgent. Although he continued his campaigns and continued to project new ones until, on his deathbed, he could no longer speak, there was a fact, however, that all his certainties would collapse: He conquered the lands between rivers Tigris and Euphrates and found the Persian army at the plains of Gaugamela, near modern Irbil in Iraq, which according to the exaggerated accounts of antiquity was said to number a million men.
It seems clear that Olympias participated perhaps was the mentor in the assassination of the king. The period of rule of the Macedonian dynasty which ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from to is known as the "Golden Age" of the Empire.
The two armies met on the battlefield the next morning, October 1, BC. He defeated the Thracians and Tribalians in series of battles and drove the rebels beyond the river.
He was assassinated by Bessus, the satrap of Bactria which now proclaimed himself "King of the Kings", assuming the title of the Persian kings. His speed surprised the Greeks and by the end of the summer BC they had no other choice but to acknowledge his authority. At length, at the Amanis, he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet, which also had suffered losses.
The 22 year-old king appointed Philip's experienced general Antipater as regent in his absence to preside over the affairs of Macedonia and Greece, left him a significant force of 13, Macedonian soldiers to watch Greece, Thrace, Illyria, and protect Macedonia, and set out for the Hellespont modern Dardanelles in the spring of BC.
He granted him the western part of his empire and the most beautiful of his daughters as his wife. The Persian army collapsed, and Alexander pursued Darius into the Kurdish mountains.
The prince had first in Lysimachus and then in Leonidas two severe pedagogues who submitted their infancy to a rigorous discipline. Precisely, one of its first measures was the foundation of a city in the delta of the Nile, to which it gave its own name, Alexandria.
Upon his arrival in Memphis he was acclaimed as liberator and invested with the power and crown of Pharaoh. Aristotle taught him to love the poems of Homerin particular the Iliadwhich in time would become a true obsession of the adult Alexander.Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III or Alexander of Macedonia, (born bce, Pella, Macedonia [northwest of Thessaloníki, Greece]—died June 13, bce, Babylon [near Al-Ḥillah, Iraq]), king of Macedonia (– bce), who overthrew the Persian empire, carried Macedonian arms to India, and laid the foundations for the.
Pella, Macedon, July 20/21, BC-Babylon, June10/11, BC Alexander III of Macedon, later known as Alexander the Great, was a Macedonian ruler and conqueror whose military achievements have made him become one of the most admired heroes.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT (– b.c.), king of Macedon, conqueror of vast empire that included Greece, Persia, Egypt, and (briefly) parts of India Alexander the Great, son of King Philip II of Macedon and a student of Aristotle, was the ancient world's greatest general. In the spring of b.c.
he led his Macedonian army across the Indus at. Philip of Macedon Philip II of Macedon Biography ( - BC) King of Macedonia and Conqueror of Illyria, Thrace, and Greece. Macedonia is an ancient kingdom located in south-eastern Europe, north of Greece, west of Thrace, and east of Illyria.
Alexander the Great, the Macedonian king and the great conqueror of Persian Empire, died at the age of 33 without designating a successor to the Macedonian Empire. After his death, nearly all the noble Susa marriages dissolved, which shows that the Macedonians despised the idea.
- Alexander the Great Alexander the Great was the king of Macedonia, conqueror of the Persian Empire, and one of the greatest military geniuses of all times.
Even at an early age, Alexander had the promise to become a great leader.Download